References: Causes and Genetics


Bateman, B., Warner, J., & Hutchinson, E. (2004). The effects of a double blind, placebo controlled, artificial food colorings and benzoate preservative challenge on hyperactivity in a general population sample of preschool children. Disabled Child, 90(8)

Biederman , J. Faraone , S. V. Keenan , K. Steingard , R. Tsuang , M. T. (1991). Familial association between attention deficit disorder (ADD) and anxiety disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 251-256.

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Eskenazi B, Castorina R (1999) Association of prenatal maternal or postnatal child environmental tobacco  smoke exposure and neurodevelopmental and behavioral problems in children. Environ Health Perspect 107(12):991–1000

Feingold BF. Hyperkinesis and learning disabilities linked to artificial food flavors and colors. Am J Nurs 1975;75:797–803.

Galton, F. (1865) Hereditary talent and character. Macmillan’s Magazine, 12, 318-327. (Part 2).

Gaviria, M. (Director), & Smith, M. (Writer) (2001). Medicating kids [Web]. Retrieved from

Gross-Tsur V et al. Attention deficit disorder: association with familial-genetic factors. Pediatr Neurol. 1991;7:258–261.

Keenan, H. T. et al. Early head injury and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: retrospective cohort study. The British Medical Journal, 2008;337:a1984.

Omen GS. Genetic issues in the syndrome of minimal brain dysfunction. In: Walzer S, Wolff PH (eds). Minimal Cerebral Dysfunction in Children. New York: Grune & Stratton;1973.

Rhee , S. H. Waldman , I. D. Hay , D. A. Levy , F. (1999). Sex differences in genetic and environmental influences on DSM-III-R attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 108, 24-41.

Slater, M. (Performer) (2011, 12 29). Causes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or adhd Innerchange. [Video podcast]. Retrieved from

Ross DM, Ross SA. Hyperactivity: research, theory and action. New York: Wiley; 1976.

undefined. (2012). ADHD Brain. In Retrieved October 17, 2012, from

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